Kalashnikov Media explains the main feature of the AKV-521 which is the version of the AK-12/AK-15 designed for the civilian market... "Today, people in Russia can hold 5 green slips for 5 smoothbore guns, and another 5 red slips for rifles. So, if one wanted to have two AKs - well, Saigas - chambered in 5.45, and also a 7.62 one, that'd mean three slots crossed out.
What we want to do here is: if one wants a civilian AK carbine in another caliber, they can buy just the barrel (that'll come as a set with a fitted receiver and bolt) and add it to the existing license, effectively owning several different calibers on one slip.
This carbine is meant for people who aren't too keen on getting an AR. They don't think they can use an AR the way they use their carbines. They want a carbine to use with scopes that can withstand the punishment their habitual use case may entail.
This is a carbine that doesn't need to be pampered. It's good with scopes, but you can also drop it without panicking about its well-being."